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Robert Menzies, the Australian Media, and the rising threat of Communism in Australia in 1949


Image: Portrait of Robert Menzies, 1950s.


The history of the Liberal Party of Australia (LPA) and Sir Robert Gordon Menzies’ contributions to, and place within the political landscape of Australia is significant. With its establishment in 1944 and Menzies’ innovative and tactful leadership, the LPA achieved phenomenal developments and victories over the opposing Labour party in a relatively short time.[1] Of these victories was the 1949 Australian federal election which was considered the most successful and groundbreaking political victory of the 20th century.[2] This was due to a multitude of factors, notably the LPA’s utilisation of media for political advertising and electioneering to capitalise on the fear of socialism in post-war Australia.[3] This essay will consult a plethora of primary sources and secondary scholarship to argue that it was Menzies saturation of political propaganda in traditional commercial print media, in conjunction with his innovative use of the radio broadcasting medium that allowed for a decisive victory in the 1949 election.[4] This involved Menzies use of newspaper publications as well as his political addresses across the radio broadcasting mediums and the production and broadcast of popular serial ‘John Henry Austral’, which reflected a creative and effective form of political propaganda never before seen in Australia.[5] Furthermore, this essay will accentuate how Menzies’ use of the media to amplify anti-socialist rhetoric during a time when the fear of communism was at the forefront of the Australian social and politico-ideological spheres allowed the LPA to emerge victorious over the Chifley government and establish a 23 year-long coalition government.[6]



In the analysis and research of the 1949 federal election, two components were considered in the selection and synthesis of secondary scholarship. These components included the relevance of scholarship with the tactics and media manipulation of Robert Menzies during the 1949 federal election campaign, and the inherent value of said scholarship in providing a coherent and balanced discussion to the following analysis. Upon initial research, secondary scholarship was difficult to locate. While the 1949 federal campaign has been widely researched, the specific parameters of Robert Menzies’ media manipulation and the use of ideological rhetoric within said manipulation has remained relatively unresearched. That is not to say, however, that there were no secondary scholarships on the subject. Rather, the adjustment of keyword search was necessary to yield more successful results.[7] In this instance, a variety of terminology was needed to accurately search through the UOW catalogue database. Terminology including ‘John Henry Austral’ to search for radio usage in 1949 were interchanged with ‘Forgotten People’ and ‘radio policy speech 1949’ which were both terms used by Menzies in his use of radio broadcasting. This search generated the most primary and important article in the following research on Menzies 1949 campaign, Dr Ian Ward’s ‘The Early use of Radio for Political Communication in Australia and Canada’. All authors of scholarship found on relevant research were professors possessed with high credentials, some with PhDs, another with advanced law degrees, while the final author was a parliamentary journalist. As such, all secondary scholarship is of high scholarly standing which lends a greater degree of verification and credibility to the research conducted and conclusions drawn. Regarding Dr Ward, he is a PhD professor currently lecturing at the University of Queensland Australia, in the Department of political science and international studies. With Dr Ward’s focus on radio utilisation and in comparing it with similar electioneering tactics exhibited abroad, its relevance and the date of its publication (2004), provided a comprehensive analysis and discussion regarding the 1949 campaign and media use.[8]


Once an appropriate secondary scholarship was identified, a search through the footnotes and reference list was conducted to generate a wider range of journal publications in a similar field. By doing this, trends began to emerge in the use of certain articles. This was how the publications of Professor Sally Young and Dr Richard Crawford were found. Professor Young’s writings were the most referenced in other publications, particularly her article Political and Parliamentary Speech in Australia, reflective of her belief that the advertising industry’s contributions towards the political landscape of Australia has received “only scant attention by scholars”.[9] Both professors referenced the other in their works and exhibited similar lines of inquiry into the 1949 federal election campaigns and their focus on the issues of socialism. They further exhibit similar discussions on Menzies’ oratorical skills and the cult of personality that emerged around him in Australia, which are significant in understanding how Menzies was able to gain such a popular following during the election and how he changed his image towards a more socially aware leader for the people.[10] Extending on this is the publication of Dr Andrew Carr, titled Civic Republicanism and Robert Menzies, which was published in 2013. His expertise in International Affairs and Australian politics lends a relatively new discussion towards the analysis of Robert Menzies political lean, making it decisively valuable to the study of his political aims and motivations in the 1949 federal election. The purpose of comprehensive and sophisticated analysis, however, is the inclusion of research that contradicts other lines of inquiry. This was found in the publication of Professor Murray Goot and Sean Scalmer, who offer a contradictory analysis to Professor Young by stipulating that Menzies was somewhat ineffective in his leadership and preferred radio broadcasting due to his lack of oratorical skills and an inability to manage hecklers in public meetings.[11] Both Goot and Scalmer are experts in the fields of political science and modern history and their publication Party Leaders, The Media, and Political Persuasion (2013), offers a degree of authenticity to the debate surrounding Menzies leadership. The final secondary scholarships provide additional analysis regarding Communist rhetoric and the career of Menzies which have been selected for the purpose of providing contextual research for the purpose of developing a deeper understanding of the ideological conflict at the time and Menzies political inclinations prior to the 1949 federal election. Robin Chalmers was an Australian political journalist and commentator who was the longest serving member of the Canberra Press Gallery from 1951 until his death in 2011, while Barrister Lawrence Maher worked as a research officer in the Parliamentary Library in Canberra in 1972. Ultimately, these journals were considered to be the most valuable and influential in the conducted research and exhibit inherent value in providing a sophisticated evaluation of the proposed research question.

Image: An article printed in the Melbourne Herald on December 9th, 1949.


The 1949 Australian federal election and Robert Menzies campaign as leader of the LPA was characterised by its high saturation of anti-socialist rhetoric and political speeches in commercial print media, specifically newspaper and magazine publications.[12] It was his ability to convey convincing political propaganda, in conjunction with a reinvigorated image as a ‘family man’ within print media, that amassed a strong following and ensured Menzies’ victory in the 1949 election.[13] When considering the political history of Menzies and the LPA, one cannot understate the sheer task Menzies had before him. The LPA was established on October 16th, 1944 after the dissolution of the United Australia Party, a mere 2 years prior to the next federal election.[14] Scholars attribute the LPA’s loss in the 1946 federal election to the inefficient time to gain a following from the Australian population.[15] Persevering, Menzies set to the task of using the next 4 years to his advantage as he understood the power of the media in electioneering.[16] Reminiscent of Marshall McLuhan’s ‘the medium is the message’ maxim, Menzies was correct in assuming that print media and newspaper readership was the dominant form of news consumption, with 52% of respondents in 1950 stating they consumed current affairs from newspapers.[17] As a result, Menzies had the optimum platform to launch his campaign and began circulating newspaper articles which boasted of the LPA’s anti-socialist stance and linked communist tendencies with the Labour party.[18] This is shown through Menzies’ multiple slogans supporting the LPA’s campaign that labelled socialism as “the deadly one”, “concern over the red menace” and “the alien pest.”[19] It is important to note, as accentuated by Tosh, that censorship undoubtedly influences the reliability of newspaper articles.[20] Thus, the articles researched are drawn from a number of publications with various political leanings and compared to generate a holistic analysis regarding Menzies’ political campaign. The newspaper article titled, ‘The Issue is Socialism,” is an example of such anti-socialist rhetoric that was written by Robert Menzies and published in the Melbourne Herald on December 9th, 1949, the day before the federal election.[21] When discussing the limitations of newspaper sources, particularly those used as political propaganda, one must first understand the motivations and ultimate aim of said publications, as outlined by Adrian Bingham.[22] In this sense, when analysing this source, its aim can be discerned as a final effort to sway voters towards Liberal. The innate bias of the source cannot be overlooked; however, it reflects the inherent message of political articles, which is to present the policies and ideas of a party in the most favourable light so as to convince a population towards the vote. While it is interesting that Menzies claims “I do not want to win or lose this election on side issues, or personal attacks,” he is accentuating that there are other issues at play.[23] Yet the significant and overarching issue is undoubtedly socialism and its impact on Australian society.[24] This idea is further exhibited in a Canberra Times publication dated November 11th, 1949, the day following Menzies attendance at a public meeting.[25] The source describes the meeting as a successful address whereby the people “cheered when he announced that the Communist Party will be outlawed.”[26] It is worthwhile to note the inaccuracies that present themselves as limitations within newspaper reports, particularly regarding the image of an influential figure. Young described Menzies as a skilled orator who was quick to confront hecklers, using his wit and intelligence to defend himself and his message.[27] Goot disagrees with this statement, stating that Menzies always found public meetings difficult as he struggled to ignore or even compete with Hecklers at public meetings, citing it as the predominant reason for the decline in his public appearances.[28]

Image: Robert Menzies as a young boy, circa. 1902.


Furthermore, Menzies use of newspaper publications to print his full speeches was widely implemented as he believed that newspapers were a platform best used to convey matters of policy, after they had been delivered.[29] At the time, it was not uncommon for newspapers to print, in full, political speeches and public meeting transcripts.[30] This is reflected in Robert Menzies Joint Opposition Policy Speech which, after delivery on November 10th, 1949, was reported in various newspaper clippings, including the latter ‘The issue is Socialism.’[31] The sources accompany one another to maximise the message of the LPA to the people of Australia and reveal the extent to which Menzies saturated the media with his policy aims. The first point of discussion is “socialism without limit,” “Labours false pretences” and “the case against Socialism,” which reveal the inherent attitude towards socialism at the time of the election and how Menzies capitalised on the issue, while simultaneously labelling the Labour party as Socialist sympathisers through their support of bank nationalisation and fuel rationing.[32] This idea is made apparent through a publication printed in Argus on April 8th, 1949 titled, ‘Angry miners heckle Ashley.’[33] The source provides information on how the coal strike directly impacted production, with officials blaming the rhetoric of socialism, and by extension the Labour party, as the cause.[34] The coal strike of 1949 was a dangerous situation for Menzies, who needed to appear to be on the side of the workers while simultaneously preaching the dangers of socialism and the impact it could have on the Australian people.[35] As such, the meeting that Minister for Supply and Shipping Senator Ashley had with the miners needed to be conducted carefully, yet still convey the dangers of socialism, “Mr Menzies said that the Communist’s job was to impede production. I am afraid there is a deal of truth in that statement.”[36] Menzies furthermore utilised print media to remodel his image from one of an aloof Capitalist, to that of a family man, in service to the people.[37] According to Chalmers, Menzies suffered from an “aloof cynic” image which could be managed with a “well-conceived public relation of a personal character.”[38] This rebranding opportunity was presented to him in the PIX magazine publication on October 24th, 1949 which reiterated Menzies unfavourable image as “the greatest case of mistaken political identity in Australia.”[39] The publication, in supporting this statement, presents many pictures of Mr Menzies and his family captioned ‘Family Man Menzies’ and ‘Menzies toasts his wife’, alongside pictures of the politician embracing his wife.[40] Ultimately, it was the humanisation of Menzies in print media which convinced the people of his anti-socialist leaning and his suitability in a position of power, and which resulted in the LPA victory in the 1949 election.[41]

Image: Robert Menzies' declaration of WWII, September 3rd, 1939.


In conjunction, Menzies’ holistic manipulation of radio broadcasting revealed an innovative approach to electioneering that was never before seen in the political landscape of Australia.[42] Not only was Menzies’ ability to address the people of Australia over the radio considerably effective, but his implementation of the ‘John Henry Austral’ serial was ground-breaking in its subtle enforcement of anti-socialist rhetoric.[43] While radio was still in its early stage of development since its commencement in Australia in 1923, by 1942, 77% of homes possessed a radio, with Menzies calling it the “great modern weapon.”[44] Menzies wartime ‘Forgotten people’ speech had already displayed his radio prowess and he understood the capabilities of the radio in political campaigning.[45] From January 1942 to April 1944, Menzies had made 105 weekly broadcasts with his ‘Forgotten People’ programme, which emphasised the dangers of socialism and called on the middle-class Australians to stand for anti-socialist sentiment.[46] In Ward’s analysis of Menzies media usage, he accentuates that the 1949 campaign is the “best documented instance of the early political use of radio,” as it “altered the relationship of politician to voter.”[47] Menzies utilised the radio for political speeches which exemplified the fear of socialism, as evidenced in his radio broadcast ‘Socialism and Communism in Australia’ which was the third in a series of weekly talks titled “The Liberal leader speaks” a series of addresses by Menzies to the public in 1949.[48] While clearly a piece of political propaganda, it is still inherently useful as stipulated by Tosh due to its revelation of the authors political aims.[49] As such its effectiveness in capitalising on the fear of socialism and its linking of socialism with the Labour government was significant, as Menzies states “the Chifley government, from the beginning, has been determined to make the Socialist objective a reality.”[50]


Additionally, Menzies innovative use of radio broadcasting for the launch of the LPA’s ‘John Henry Austral’ serial is considered the most effective in gaining popular support in the 1949 federal election.[51] The LPA’s advertising agent, Sim Rubensohn was funded by Australian and London businesses who were “anxious to rid themselves of a socialist Labour government.”[52] As a result, the ‘John Henry Austral’ serial was created as a ‘part satire, part soapbox’ which addressed the people about real issues affecting the democratic, economic and social systems of Australia, with an underpinning of anti-communist rhetoric.[53] This piece of political advertising was a 15-minute episode serial that aired between April of 1947 and December of 1949, with a total of 200 episodes.[54] It was designed to appeal to the classes and gain support for the Liberal government without forcing the policies and aims of said government onto the masses, as stipulated by Ward.[55] The serial not only aired on radio, but was given additional advertising in newspaper print, as evidenced by the newspaper article published in the Kalgoorlie Miner in Western Australia, titled ‘Liberal broadcasts ‘John Henry Austral’ programmes.’[56] Bingham accentuates that the advantages of newspaper articles is “their wealth and diversity of content,” applicable to the ‘John Henry’ advertisement as the facts gleaned from it are numerous.[57] The source itself represents the popularity and wide-spread reach of the Liberal party’s radio programmes across Australia, evident as this newspaper publication was addressing the residents of Western Australia.[58] As such, the influence and listenership of the John Henry programmes was vast. Ultimately, it was the Liberals utilisation of the broadcasting medium for dramatisation and creative expression as opposed to simply broadcasting policies and political speeches that made the campaign so effective and astounding on a historical level, and what assured Liberal victory in the election.[59]



Image: Robert Menzies, circa. 1950s.


Ultimately, Menzies 1949 federal election campaign resulted in a decisive victory with the LPA gaining 74 seats in the House of Representatives, as opposed to Labour’s 47 seats, as revealed in the election results published by the Department of Parliamentary Affairs, Australia.[60] The Chifley government blamed the “constant barrage over the radio and in the press,” for Liberal victory while the opposition succeeded in linking communism with the Labour government.[61] Yet, Maher stipulates that Menzies real objective in the federal election campaign was to split the Australian Labour Party as opposed to effecting real change in the legislation surrounding communism, evident through the apparent lull in Liberal’s anti-socialist policy following their victory.[62] The research conducted for this discussion was analysed with the methodology provided by John Tosh and Adrian Bingham, and ultimately, due to the nature of the publications, the limitations of the newspaper articles were numerous due to inherent bias as political propaganda. That being stated, their usefulness is still significant and their utilisation in conjunction with secondary scholarship allows for hidden motives and facts to be discerned. The research conducted ultimately concluded that Menzies manipulation of all commercial print media and radio and his saturation of those platforms with anti-socialist rhetoric resulted in the LPA’s victory within the 1949 federal election.[63] Written by Megan Adler.

BA/BCMS (DA), MTeach (Sec).

[1] Andrew Carr, and B. T. Jones, ‘Civic Republicanism and Sir Robert Menzies: the non-liberal side of the Liberal leader’, Journal of Australian Studies, vol. 37, no. 4 (2013), p. 486. [2] Ibid. [3] Ian Ward, ‘The early use of radio for political communication in Australia and Canada: John Henry Austral, Mr. Sage and the Man from Mars’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 45, no. 3 (1999), p. 312. [4] Ibid. [5] Ibid, p. 314. [6] Robert Crawford, ‘Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections’, The Drawing Board: An Australian Review of Public Affairs, vol. 4, no. 3 (2004), p. 140. [7] John Tosh, The Pursuit of History: Aims, methods and new directions in the study of history (London: Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2015), p. 45. [8] Ward, ‘The early use of radio for political communication in Australia and Canada’, p. 312. [9] Crawford, ‘Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections’, p. 138. [10] Sally Young, ‘Political and Parliamentary Speech in Australia’, Parliamentary Affairs, vol. 60, no. 2 (2007), p. 240. [11] Murray Goot and Sean Scalmer, ‘Party Leaders, the Media, and Political Persuasion: The Campaigns of Evatt and Menzies on the Referendum to Protect Australia from Communism’, Australian Historical Studies, vol. 44, no. 1 (2013), p. 74. [12] Young, ‘Political and Parliamentary Speech in Australia’, p. 239. [13] Crawford, ‘Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections’, p. 145. [14] Carr & Jones, ‘Civic Republicanism and Sir Robert Menzies’, p. 486. [15] Robin Chalmers, ‘Menzies: The giant in Australian Politics’, in Robert Chalmers, Sam Vincent and John Wanna (eds), Inside the Canberra Press Gallery: Life in the Wedding Cake of Old Parliament House (Canberra: ANU Press, 2011), p. 38. [16] Ibid. [17] Goot & Scalmer, ‘Party Leaders, the Media, and Political Persuasion’, p. 83. [18] Ibid. [19] ‘Concern Over Red Menace,’ The Mercury, 29 September 1948. [20] Tosh, The Pursuit of History, p. 38. [21] ‘The Issue is Socialism,’ Melbourne Herald, 9 December 1949. [22] Adrian Bingham, ‘The Digitisation of Newspaper Archives: Opportunities and Challenges for Historians’, Twentieth Century British History, vol. 21, no, 2 (2010), p. 229. [23] ‘The Issue is Socialism’, 9 December 1949. [24] Ibid. [25] ‘Communist Party Will be Outlawed,’ Canberra Times, 11 November, 1949. [26] Ibid. [27] Young, ‘Political and Parliamentary Speech in Australia’, p. 239. [28] Goot & Scalmer, ‘Party Leaders, the Media, and Political Persuasion’, p. 74. [29] Young, ‘Political and Parliamentary Speech in Australia’, p. 250. [30] Ibid, p. 238. [31] ‘Joint Opposition Policy 1949 – Policy Speech of the Leader of the Opposition, Rt. Hon. R. G. Menzies, delivered at Canterbury, Victoria, on November 10, 1949, together with supplementary statements’, 324/29405, L/61, State Library of Victoria, Melbourne. And ‘The Issue is Socialism’, 9 December 1949. [32] ‘Joint Opposition Policy 1949’, R.G. Menzies, 1949. [33] ‘Angry Miners Heckle Ashley,’ Argus, 8 April 1949. [34] Ibid. [35] Chalmers, ‘Menzies: The giant in Australian Politics’, p. 41. [36] ‘Angry Miners Heckle Ashley’, 8 April 1949. [37] Crawford, ‘Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections’, p. 144. [38] Ibid, p. 145. [39] Oliver Hogue, ‘Opposition Leader Menzies,’ PIX vol. 23, no. 15 (National Library of Australia), 8 October 1949, p. 22-25. [40] Ibid, p. 22. [41] Menzies: The giant in Australian Politics’, p. 41 [42] Crawford, ‘Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections’, p. 143. [43] Ward, ‘The early use of radio for political communication in Australia and Canada’, p. 313. [44] Ibid, p. 321. [45] Crawford, ‘Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections’, p. 143. [46] Ward, ‘The early use of radio for political communication in Australia and Canada’, p. 326. [47] Ibid, p. 327. [48] Menzies, R. November 1949, Socialism and Communism in Australia: The Liberal Party View by R.G. Menzies, (Radio Broadcast – 7.55 minutes). The Menzies Research Centre, https://bit.ly/3ldj8ZJ [49] Tosh, The Pursuit of History, p. 38. [50] Menzies, Socialism and Communism in Australia, 1949. [51] Ward, ‘The early use of radio for political communication in Australia and Canada’, p. 313. [52] Ibid. [53] Ibid, p. 314. [54] Ibid. [55] Ibid. [56] ‘Liberal Broadcasts John Henry Austral Programmes,’ Kalgoorlie Miner, 31 August 1949. [57] Bingham, ‘The Digitisation of Newspaper Archives, p. 230. [58] ‘Liberal Broadcasts John Henry Austral Programmes’, 31 August 1949. [59] Ward, ‘The early use of radio for political communication in Australia and Canada’, p. 313. [60] Federal Elections – December 1949. Speeches and Statements by the Rt Hon RG Menzies, Leader of the Liberal Party, 1949, Department of Defence, A5954, 2315/13, National Archives of Australia, Canberra. [61] Crawford, ‘Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections’, p. 155. [62] Lawrence Maher, ‘Dealing with the King’s Enemies: The Drafting of the Communist Party Dissolution Bill 1950’, Australian Historical Studies, vol. 44, no. 1 (2013), p. 42. [63] Crawford, ‘Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections’, p. 140.


References

Primary Sources

-Federal Elections – December 1949. Speeches and Statements by the Rt Hon RG Menzies, Leader of the Liberal Party, 1949, Department of Defence, A5954, 2315/13, National Archives of Australia, Canberra.

-Federal Election results 1949-2004, ‘Research Brief’, Department of Parliamentary Services, Australia, no. 11 (2004-05), p. 11, 34.

-‘Joint Opposition Policy 1949 – Policy Speech of the Leader of the Opposition, Rt. Hon. R. G. Menzies, delivered at Canterbury, Victoria, on November 10, 1949, together with supplementary statements’, 324/29405, L/61, State Library of Victoria, Melbourne.

-Menzies, R. November 1949, Socialism and Communism in Australia: The Liberal Party View by R.G. Menzies, (Radio Broadcast – 7.55 minutes). The Menzies Research Centre, https://bit.ly/3ldj8ZJ

-Oliver Hogue, ‘Opposition Leader Menzies,’ PIX vol. 23, no. 15 (National Library of Australia), 8 October 1949, p. 22-25.

-‘15 years of One-Party Government,’ Woroni, 23 September 1965.

-‘Angry Miners Heckle Ashley,’ Argus, 8 April 1949.

-‘Communist Party Will be Outlawed,’ Canberra Times, 11 November 1949.

-‘Concern Over Red Menace,’ The Mercury, 29 September 1948.

-‘Liberal Broadcasts John Henry Austral Programmes,’ Kalgoorlie Miner, 31 August 1949.

-‘The Issue is Socialism,’ Melbourne Herald, 9 December 1949.


Secondary Scholarship

-Bingham, Adrian. ‘The Digitisation of Newspaper Archives: Opportunities and Challenges for Historians’. Twentieth Century British History, vol. 21, no. 2 (2010), pp. 225-231.

-Carr, Andrew and B. T. Jones. ‘Civic Republicanism and Sir Robert Menzies: the non-liberal side of the Liberal leader’. Journal of Australian Studies, vol. 37, no. 4 (2013), pp. 485-502.

-Chalmers, Robin. ‘Menzies: The giant in Australian Politics’. In Robert -Chalmers, Sam Vincent and John Wanna (eds). Inside the Canberra Press Gallery: Life in the Wedding Cake of Old Parliament House. Canberra: ANU Press, 2011, pp. 35-52.

-Crawford, Robin. ‘Modernising Menzies, Whitlam, and Australian Elections’. The Drawing Board: An Australian Review of Public Affairs, vol. 4, no. 3 (2004), pp. 137-161.

-Goot, Murray and Sean Scalmer. ‘Party Leaders, the Media, and Political Persuasion: The Campaigns of Evatt and Menzies on the Referendum to Protect Australia from Communism’. Australian Historical Studies, vol. 44, no. 1 (2013), pp. 71-88.

-Maher, Lawrence. ‘Dealing with the King’s Enemies: The Drafting of the Communist Party Dissolution Bill 1950’. Australian Historical Studies, vol. 44, no. 1 (2013), pp. 37-53.

-Tosh, John. The Pursuit of History: Aims, methods and new directions in the study of history. London: Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2015.

-Ward, Ian. ‘The early use of radio for political communication in Australia and Canada: John Henry Austral, Mr Sage and the Man from Mars’. Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 45, no. 3 (1999), pp. 311-329.

-Young, Sally. ‘Political and Parliamentary Speech in Australia’. Parliamentary Affairs, vol. 60, no. 2 (2007), pp. 234-252.

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